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Direct and Indirect Speech

A. Direct speech
Direct speech refers to reproducing another person’s exact word oe saying exactly what someone has said(sometimes called quoted speech) here what a peson says appears within quotation marks(“….”) and should be word for word.
For example :
She said,”today’s lesson is on presentations.” Or
“Today’s lesson is on presentations,” she said.

B.Indirect speech
Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech),doesn’t use quotation marks to enclpse what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word.

For example :” I’m going to the cinema”,he said – he said he was going to the cinema.

Tense Change
When reporting speech the tense usually changes. Because when we use reported speech,we are usually talking about a time in the past. Note : the reporting verbs that are usually used to report imperative sentence are : Tell , other command , ask,warn remind

Simple present - Past tenses
Vita said” I eat fried rice” vita said that she ate fried rice

Simple past - Past perfect
Mother said” I went to market yesterday” - mother said (that) she had gone to market the day before.

Simple future - Past future
Dave said” I will buy an i-pod nexk week’ - Dave said (that) he would buy an i-pod the week after.

Present continuous - Past continuous
Gama said” I’m playing football” - Gama said he was playing football

Past continuous - Past perfect continuous
She said” I was teaching earlier” - she said she had been teaching earlier

-when report what someone said,don’t usually repeat their exact weords,use our words, we can use reporting words such as tell say as follow by”that clause”
example : my mother said that she got up at 4 o’clock.

In time expression and pronouns
Direct speech-----
-last week
-next week

Indirect speech-----
-that day/that night
-the day before/the previous day
-the next/following day
-the previous week
-the following week/the week after
-they changes according to the context

Modal verb froms also sometimes change :
Direct speech-----

Indirect speech-----

Note – there is no change to;could,would,should,might and ought too.
Direct speech
“I might go to the cinema”, he said

Indirect speech
He said he might go to cinema.

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The making available of a new securities issue to the public through an underwriting. also called public offering.

Ways to say it
* Would you like a cup of tea, Mr malik?
* Should I get you a bottle of water?
* Could I offer you a glass of milk, Mr. gery?
* Would you care some candy?

In the following dialogue is given some examples of expressions when we are going to offer something to someone else.

A: Here. Have a cookie.
B: Thanks

A: Would you like some cake?
B: No thank you. It looks delicious though

A: How about a glass of coffee?
B: Thanks, but I don’t drink coffee.

A: What will you have (to drink)?
B: Manggo juice will be fine.

A: Would you like some more pie?
B: Sure. It’s really good. Did you bake it yourself?

A: Can I get you some milk or something?
B: Well, a glass of water would be okay.

A: Here. Have a cookie.
B: Thanks.

A: Would you like some pie?
B: No thank you. It looks delicious though.

A:How about a glass of wine?
B:thanks, but I don't drink (alcohol).

A: What will you have (to drink)?
B: Orange juice will be fine.

A:Would you like some more cake?
B:Sure. It's really good. Did you bake it yourself ?

A:Can I get you some milk or something?
B:Well, a glass of water would be okay.

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Introductory It

Simak kalimat di bawah ini,....

A.To understand this lesson is easy.

B.It is easy to understand this lesson.

In this pattern, it has no meaning. It is used only to fill the subject position in the sentence. Thus, it is called introductory “it”.

A and B mean the same thing, but sentence B is more common and useful than A. A was introduce mainly to make the meaning of C easier to understand.

Introductory “it” can fill the position both of the subject and object.

• A word when usedin sentence, do not influence the sentences meaning because it’s meaning have
• Been contained by other sentence element. Introductory it earn also function as word change the.
• It serve the purpose of subject and also object.
• It Accommodating with the word it’s change
• As subject weather situation

Example :
- Today is hot
• it is hot today
- Yesterday was cloudy
• It was cloudy yesterday
- Summer is of note of rainy
• It is of note of rainy in summer.

Showing distance
- How far is the station to your home.
- My house is far away from here.
- Is the mosque far from here
- How far is it to your home
- It is about 24 km
- Is it far from here
- Assuring / explaining tio infinitive (showing condition of)

- To do the test is not easy
* It is not easy to do the test.
- To study math is very interesting
* it is very interesting to study math
- To meet you again will be nice
* it will be nice to meet you again
• As object Assuring / explaining to infinitive (showing condition of )

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something or sentences which we can use to invite someone or group to a party or a program.

* if we want invite someone, we can use :
1.would you like...?
2.can you come to ...
3.could you go to my home?
4.shall we...?
5.I'd like to invite you.. about..
7.i would you like...

* accept an invitation
- o.k. !
-that's a good idea
-thank's for your invitation
-that would be very nice. thank you !
-All right
-Thank you, I'll come...
-Of course ! I'll come ...
-Yes, I'll join to..

* to refuse / dealine an invitation
- that's nice unfortunately
- Sorry,that wouldn't be possible,thank's
- Sorry,because i have program
- Sorry,it's good,but i can't present it
- I'm awfully,sorry
- I would love,but..
- It's good,but..
- Sorry I'm busy....

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Noun Phrase

A noun phrase is either a single noun or pronoun or any group of words containing a noun or a pronoun that function together as a noun or pronoun, as the subject or object of a verb.

For example, ‘they’, ‘books’, and ‘the books’ are noun phrases, but ‘book’ is just a noun, as you can see in these sentences (in which the noun phrases are all in bold)
Example 1:
Aditya : Do you like books?
Dodi : Yes, I like them.
Aditya : Do you like books over there?
Dodi : Yes, they are nice.
Aditya : Do you like the book I brought yesterday?
Dodi : Yes, I like it. (Note: ‘It’ refers to ‘the book’, not ‘book’)

Example 2:
Nicko was late.
(‘Nicko’ is the noun phrase functioning as the subject of the verb.)
Some noun phrases are short: The students
Some are long: The very tall education consultant

Structures of noun phrases:
▪ A beautiful old painting on the wall

- A beautiful old

Head noun
- painting

- on the wall

When you use a noun in front of another noun, you never put adjectives between them. You put adjectives in front of the first noun.

Example: We just spoke with a young American boy.
Noun phrase can be in form of gerund (Vbase+ing) or gerund and other nouns compounding.

Example: passing the exam watching TV
preparing the equipment sliding down a rope
going to school diving board

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Vocabulary Around the House

Mari mengenali sekeliling rumah kita dalam kata bahasa inggris...

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Preposition IN, ON, AT

A preposition is a word or groups of words used before a noun or a pronoun to show place, position, time or method.


at 3 o’clock
at 10.30am
at noon
at dinnertime
at bedtime
at sunrise
at sunset
at the moment

in May
in summer
in the summer
in 1990
in the 1990s
in the next century
in the Ice Age
in the past/future

on Sunday
on Tuesdays
on 6 March
on 25 Dec. 2010
on Christmas Day
on Independence Day
on my birthday
on New Year’s Eve

Look at these examples:
I have a meeting at 9am.
The shop closes at midnight.
Jane went home at lunchtime.
In England, it often snows in December.
Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future?
There should be a lot of progress in the next century.
Do you work on Mondays?
Her birthday is on 20 November.
Where will you be on New Year’s Day?
Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions:

Expression -Example
at night -The stars shine at night.
at the weekend -I don’t usually work at the weekend.
at Christmas/Easter -I stay with my family at Christmas.
at the same time -We finished the test at the same time.
at present -He’s not home at present. Try later.

Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions:

in the morning
in the mornings
in the afternoon(s)
in the evening(s)
on Tuesday morning
on Saturday mornings
on Sunday afternoons
on Sunday evening

When we say last, next, every, this we do not also use at, in, on.

I went to London last June. (not in last June)
He’s coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
We’ll call you this evening. (not in this evening)

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Simple Future

Simple future is used for describing job or action that will to do (happened) at future.

A. In order to
1. Future tense “will”
a. To assert incident/event that future and decide that incident at talking.
Example= A: can you help me to do this home work?
B: of course, I will do it for you.

b. To offer to do something.
Example= A: I don’t have a pen to write.
B: don’t worry. I will lend you.

c. To assert an agreement to do something.
Example= A: you must come to my party.
               B: I promise I will come on party.

d. To ask someone to do something.
Example= A: it’s very hot in my room.
               B: certainly.

e. To predict event that will be happened
Example= A: will I pass the test next month?
               B: don’t worry, you will pass.

f. To assert an incident/event that will be sure happened.
Example= A: I’m seventeen years old now. How old will I be next year?
               B: you will be eighteen years old next years. All people and animals in the world will die

2. Future tense “shall”
a. To assert a deal or gift suggestion
Example= Today, we are free.
Where shall we go?
Note: shall for subject “I, we”

3. Future tense “be going to”
a. To assert an incident that will be happened and gone ever break a promise to do it.
Example= A: Did you send my letter for her?
               B: oh, I’m sorry I forgot. I’m going to send it tonight.

b. To assert an incident/event that cause there are incident/event that mention that what will be next happened.
Example= A: The sky is very dark. What do you think?
               B: I think it’s going to rain

B. Time signal
*  Morning
*  Afternoon
*  Evening
*  Night

2. Next…
*  Time
*  Week
*  Month
*  Year
*  January

3. Tonight
4. The day after tomorrow
5. Soon
6. Later
7. Two, three more days
8. Two, three days later
9. By and by

C. Formation of sentences
1. Positive (+):
a. Subject + shall/will + VI
Example: I shall clean the room
We will go to school
She will give a present
Note: “shall” just can use for subject “I and We”
b. Subject + be + going to + VI
I am going to play tennis
They are going to swim very fast
He is going to write a story

2. Negative (-)
a. Subject + shall/will + not + VI
Example: I shan’t buy a shirt
He won’t clean the room
Note: shall not = shan’t
Will not = won’t
b. Subject + be not + going to + VI
Example: I am not going to give a present

3. Interrogative (?)
a. Shall/will + subject + VI ?
Example: will we play tennis?
b. Be + subject + going to + VI ?
Example: is she going to write a story?

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Asking If Someone Remember or Not

Ih, lumayan nih materi susah2 gampang...
Klo di pelajari dengan sungguh2 akan terasa gampang, makanya simak baik2....

Formal expressions:
Ø I wonder if you remember.....
Ø You remember...., don’t you?
Ø You haven’t forgotten...., have you?
Ø Don’t you remember.....?
Ø Do you happen to remember it now?

Ways to respond:
Ø Let me think, yes, I remember.
Ø I remember especially the scenery.
Ø I’ll never forget that
Ø I’ll always remember.
Ø I can remember it clearly.

Informal expressions:
Ø Remember the old house we used to live in?
Ø Remember that?
Ø I’m sorry I don’t remember

Ways to respond:
Ø Hold on. Yes, got it!
Ø I know.....
Ø It’s coming back to me now.

Respond if you forget:
Ø Sorry, I’ve completely forgotten.
Ø I’m affraid I forget.
Ø I really can’t remember.
Ø I’m afraid I have no memory of him
Ø Errr, let me think. No, it’s gone.
Ø Sorry, it slipped off my mind.

It was Sunday morning, Irun got dressed and had breakfast quickly. She was ready to leave for school. Her father was a little puzzled.
Father : Hey...hey.... are you going to school?
Irun : Yes, Father. I overslept. I’m in a hurry
Father : You remember Sunday, don’t you?
Irun : Oh, my goodnes. I thought it’s a school day !

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Descriptive Text

Teman-teman mari kita pelajari bersama Descriptive Text..

The aim of descriptive text: to describe the characteristics of particular person, thing, or place.

Text Structure:
▪ Identification Þ identifies thing, person, place, phenomenon to be described.
▪ Description Þ gives the information of particular thing, person, or place being discussed or describes parts, qualities, or characteristics.

Grammatical Features:
▪ Who? What?
▪ Using Linking verb and Simple Present Tense
▪ Epithet: adjective or adjective phrase
▪ Attributive (the)
▪ Use of attributive and identifying process
▪ Focus on specific participants
▪ Frequent use of epithets and classifier in nominal groups

Example of Descriptive Text:
Bandengan Beach

Bandengan Beach or Tirta Samudra Beach is the famous beach in jepara. the place is very beautiful and romantic. people around Jepara, Kudus, Demak knows this place.

This place is located 7 kilometers north of Jepara city center. The way to get there is very easy. Just follow the traffic sign and you will find it. From the town square, follow the road to Bangsri then turn left when reached kuwasen village. You can take public transportation or by your own vehicle.

The white sandy beach which has pure water is good for swimming. The beach is save enough for swimming because the beach is shallow and the wave is not so big. This place is more beautiful at dusk. We can see the beautiful sunset with our family or friends.

In this location, we can sit and relax on the shelter while enjoy the natural beach breezy wind. It also has large pandan tree field. It is suitable for youngster activities such as camping.

If we want to sail, we can rent the traditional boat owned by local people. We can make voyage around the beach or we can go to pulau panjang (panjang island). Some time we can find banana boat and jet ski for rent.

In this place we can find many traditional footstalls. We can order traditional foods sold by the trader such as roasted fish, crab, boiled shell. Pindang srani is one of the delicious food enjoyed by the visitors.

come to the bandengan beach and you will find a paradise on the tips of Muria peninsula.

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